Established in/on — April 7, 1948
Headquarters — Geneva (Switzerland)
Official Languages — Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
Member States — 193 Member States
Type of Organisation
WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.
In the 21st century, health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access to essential care and collective defence against transnational threats.
When diplomats met to form the United Nations in 1945, one of the things they discussed was setting up a global health organization. WHO’s Constitution came into force on April 7, 1948 a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day.
WHO operates in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. The boundaries of public health action have become blurred, extending into other sectors that influence health opportunities and outcomes. WHO responds to these challenges using a six-point agenda. The six points address two health objectives, two strategic needs, and two operational approaches. The overall performance of WHO will be measured by the impact of its work on women’s health and health in Africa.
“I want my leadership to be judged by the impact of our work on the health of two populations: women and the people of Africa.”
—Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General
1. Promoting Development—During the past decade, health has achieved unprecedented prominence as a key driver of socio-economic progress, and more resources than ever are being invested in health. Yet poverty continues to contribute to poor health and poor health anchors large populations in poverty. Health development in directed by the ethical principle of equity : Access to life-saving or health promoting interventions should not be denied for unfair reasons, including those with economic or social roots. Commitment to this principle ensures that WHO activities aimed at health development give priority to health outcomes in poor, disadvantaged or vulnerable groups. Attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals, preventing and treating chronic diseases and addressing the neglected tropical diseases are the cornerstones of the health and development agenda.
2. Fostering Health Security—Shared vulnerability to health security threats demands collective action. One of the greatest threats to international health security arises from outbreaks of emerging and epidemic-prone diseases. Such outbreaks are occurring in increasing numbers, fuelled by such factors as rapid urbanization, environmental mismanagement, the way food is produced and traded, and the way antibiotics are used and misused. The world’s ability to defend itself collectively against outbreaks has been strengthened since June 2007, when the revised International Health Regulations came into force.
3. Strengthening Health Systems—For health improvement to operate as a poverty-reduction strategy, health services must reach poor and underserved populations. Health systems in many parts of the world are unable to do so, making the strengthening of health systems a high priority for WHO. Areas being addressed include the provision of adequate numbers of appropriately trained staff, sufficient financing, suitable systems for collecting vital statistics, and access to appropriate technology including essential drugs.
4. Harnessing Research, Information and Evidence—Evidence provides the foundation for setting priorities, defining strategies, and measuring results. WHO generates authoritative health information, in consultation with leading experts, to set norms and standards, articulate evidence-based policy options and monitor the evolving global heath situation.
5. Enhancing Partnerships—WHO carries out its work with the support and collaboration of many partners, including UN agencies and other international organizations, donors, civil society and the private sector. WHO uses the strategic power of evidence to encourage partners implementing programmes within countries to align their activities with best technical guidelines and practices, as well as with the priorities established by countries.
6. Improving Performance—WHO participates in ongoing reforms aimed at improving its efficiency and effectiveness, both at the international level and within countries. WHO aims to ensure that its strongest assetits-staff-works in an environment that is motivating and rewarding. WHO plans its budget and activities through results-based management, with clear expected results to measure performance at country, regional and international levels.
The Role of WHO in Public Health
WHO fulfils its objectives through its core functions :
● Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed;
● Shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge;
● Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation;
● Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options;
● Providing technical support, catalysing change, and building sustainable institutional capacity; and
● Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends.
These core fuctions are set out in the 11th General Programme of Work, which provides the framework for organisation-wide programme of work, budget, resources and results. Entitled ‘Engaging for health’, it covers the 10 year period from 2006 to 2015.