Important Constitutional Amendments in India
December 12,2014 01:55PM view : 1030
The Constitution (Seventy Amendment) Act, 1992
It facilitates for members of Delhi and Pondicherry assemblies to participate in
the election of the President.
The Constitution (Seventy-first Amendment) Act, 1992
The amendment facilitates for the inclusion of Napali, Manipuri and Konkani in
the eight schedule of the Constitution. With the inclusion of these three
languages, the number of languages in the Eight Schedules goes up to 18.
The Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992
For restoring peace and harmony in the areas of the State of Tripura where
disturbed conditions prevailed, Memorandum of Settlement was signed by the
Government of India with Tripura National Volunteers on August 12,1988.
In order to implement the said Memorandum, Article 332 of the Constitution
(Seventy-second Amendment) Act, 1992 for making a temporary provision for the
determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the
State Assemble of Tripura, until the re adjustment of seats is made on the basis
of the first census after the year 2000 under Article 170 of the Constitution
The Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992
The Seventy-third Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 was passed by the
Parliament on December 22nd, 1992 which was notified by the Central Government
through Official Gazette on April 20,1993 as it gote rectification by the State
legislatures and was assented to by the President of India. After notification
the Panchayati Raj institutions have now got Constitutional legitimacy.
After part VIII of the Constitution a separate part IX has been added to the
Constitution with the addition in Article 243A and fresh schedule called
Eleventh schedule enumerating the powers and functions of Panchayti Raj
Institutions has been incorporated. The Act provides for Gram Sabha, a three-tiermodel
of Panchayati Raj, reservation of seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their
population and one-third reservation of seats for women.
The Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment) Act, 1992
The Act provides constitutional status to urban local bodies. After part VIII of
the Constitution a separate part IXA has been added to the Constitution with the
addition in Article 243A and fresh schedule called Twelfth schedule enumerating
the powers and functions of urban local bodies has been incorporated. The Act
provides Municipal Panchayat, Municipal Council and Municipal Corporation,
reservation of seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population and
one-third reservation of seats for women.
The Constitution (Seventy-fifth Amendment) Act, 1993
It has amended Article 323-B and added a new clause (h) providing for
establishment of tribunals for rent control cases.
The Constitution (Seventy-sixth Amendment) Act, 1994
This Amendment Act raises the reservation quota of government jobs and seats for
admission in the educational institutions in favour of socially and
educationally backward classes to 69 per cent in Tamil Nadu. Further, the
Amendment Act has been included in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to
exempt it from the purview of judicial scrutiny.
The Constitution (Seventy-eight Amendment) Act, 1995
This Amendment has added a new clause (4-a) to Article 16 of the Constitution
which empowers the State to make any provisions for reservation in promotions in
Government jobs in favour of SCs and STs, if it is of opinion that they are
inadequately represented in the services under the State. This has been done to
nullify the effect of the Supreme Court Judgment in the Mandal Commission Case (Indra
Sawhney vs. Union of India) in which the Court has held that reservation in
promotions cannot be made.
The Constitution (Seventy-eight Amendment) Act, 1995
This amendment has amended the Ninth schedule of the Constitution and inserted
27 Land Reform Act of Various States in the Ninth Schedule. After this the total
number of Act included in the Ninth Schedule has gone upto 284. now these Acts
cannot be challenged in the courts on the plea for the violation of Fundamental
The Constitution (Seventy-ninth Amendment) Act 1999
By this Act the Government has extended the reservation of seats for the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as fro the Anglo-Indians in
the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States for
another ten years.
The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000
Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commissions, an alternative
scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the State has been enacted by the
Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 2000. Under the new scheme of devolution
of revenue between Union and the States, 26 per cent out of gross proceeds of
union taxes and duties is to be assigned to the States in lieu of their existing
share in the income-tax, excise duties special excise duties and grants in lieu
of tax on railway passenger fares.
The Constitution (Eighty-first Amendment) Act, 2000
By this amendment the unfilled vacancies of a year which reserved for the
Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being filled up in that year in
accordance with any provision of reservations made under Article 16 of the
Constitution shall be considered as a separate class of vacancies to be filled
up in any succeeding year or years, and such class of vacancies shall not be
considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they were filled up
for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent reservation against total number
of vacancies of that year.
The Constitution (Eighty-second Amendment) Act, 2000
The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335 shall prevent the State from
making any provisions in favour of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the
Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or
lowering the standards of evaluation for reservation in matters of promotion to
any class or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of the
Union or of a State.
The Constitution (Eighth-third Amendment) Act, 2000
The Act amended0 Article 243M of the Constitution to provide that no reservation
in Panchayats need be made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal
Pradesh wholly inhabited by tribal population.
The Constitution (Eighty-fourth Amendment) Act, 2001
The Act amended provisions to Article 82 and 170(3) of the Constitution to
readjust and rationalise the territorial constituencies in the States, without
altering the number of seats allotted to each State in the House of People and
Legislative Assemblies of the States, including the Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes Constituencies, on the basis of the population ascertained at
the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven
growth of population/electorate in different constituencies.
The Constitution (Eighty-fifth Amendment) Act, 2001
This Act amended Article 16 (4A) of the Constitution to provide for
consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of
reservation for Government servants belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the
The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002
With a view to making right to free and compulsory education a fundamental
right, the Act inserts a new Article, namely, Article 21A conferring on all
children in the age group of 6 to 14 years the right to free and compulsory
education. The Act amends in Part-III, Part –IV and Part-IV(A) of the
The Constitution (Eighty-seventh Amendment) Act, 2003
The Amendment provides for readjustment of electoral constituencies, including
those reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, based on the
population census for the year 2001, without affecting the number of seats
allocated to States in the legislative bodies.
The Constitution (Eighty-Eight Amendment) Act, 2003
The Act amends Article 268, 270 and VIIth Schedule of the Constitution. It adds
92C just after 92B and makes provisions for Tax on Services.
The Constitution (Eighty- ninth Amendment) Act, 2003
The Act adds Article 338A and provides for the creation of National Commission
for Scheduled Tribes.
The Constitution (Ninetieth Amendment) Act, 2003
The Act amends Article 332 and adds section (6) regarding representation in the
Bodo Territorial Areas District in the State of Assam.
The Constitution (Ninety-one Amendment) Act, 2003
The Act makes provisions for limiting the size of the Council of Ministers at
the center and in the States and gives teeth to debar a defector from holding
any remunerative political post for the remaining tenure of the legislature
The Constitution (Ninety- two Amendment) Act, 2003
The Amendment facilitates for the inclusion of Bodo, Dogari, Maithili and
Sanhali in the VIII Schedule of the Constitution. With the inclusion of these
four languages, the number of languages in the VIII Schedule goes upto 22.
The Constitution (Ninety- third Amendment) Act, 2005
Providing reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes,
besides the Schedules Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, in private unaided
The Constitution (Ninety- fourth Amendment) Act, 2006
The Constitution provides that there shall be Minister in charge of tribal
welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the Scheduled Casts
and backward classes or any other work in the State of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and
The Constitution (Ninety- Fifth Amendment) Act, 2010
Extends the reservation of seats and special reservation of SC and ST in the
House of People and in the Legislative Assemblies of states for 10 more years
under Article 334.
The Constitution (Ninety- Sixth Amendment) Act, 2011
Alters language ‘Oriya’ as ‘Odia’ in the Eighth Schedule.
The Constitution (Ninety- Seventh Amendment) Act, 2012
(Date on which the Act came into force–12.01.2012. Date of ascent) add the words
“or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(1)(c) and
insertion of Article 43B i.e., Promotion of co-operative societies and added
Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.