Important Constitutional Amendments in India
December 12,2014 01:55PM view : 949
Federalism : The Act added Article 257A in the Constitution to enable the
Centre to deploy any armed force of the union, or any other force under its
control. For dealing with any grave situation of law and order in any State.
Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles: A major change that was made by
42nd Constitutional Amendment was to give primacy to all directive principles
over the fundamental right contained in Articles 14, 19 or 31. the 42nd
Constitutional Amendment added a few more directive principles free legal aid,
participation of workers in management of industries, protection for environment
and protection of forests and wildlife of the country.
Fundamental Duties : The 42nd Amendment Act inserted Article 51-A to
create a new part called IV-A in the Constitution, which prescribed the
fundamental duties to the citizens.
Emergency : Prior to 42nd Amendment Act, the President could declare
emergency under Article 352 throughout the country and not in a part of the
country alone. The Act authorised the President to proclaim emergency in any
part of the country.
The dominant thrust of the Amendment was to reduce the role of courts,
particularly, that of the High Courts. It also sought to strengthen Parliament
in various ways which in effect, added to the power of the Central Government it
drew enormous criticism particularly for it was pushed through during Emergency.
The Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977
In 1977, the Emergency came to an end the Janata Party came into power. It made
an election pledge that it would repeal the 42nd Amendment and restore the
status quo ante. The 43rd Amendment repealed some of the provisions of the 42nd
Amendment. Article 31D has also been omitted.
The Constitution (Forty-forth Amendment) Act, 1978
The 44th Amendment passed in 1978 undid
most of the distortions introduced into the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment
of the Constitution. The salient features of the Amendment Act are as follows :
It reduced the life of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies again to five
years and thus restored the status quo ante.
It cancelled 39th Amendment which had deprived the Supreme Court of its
jurisdiction to decide disputes concerning election of the President and the
A new provision was added to Article 74(1) saying that the President cold
require the council of ministers to reconsider its advice to him, either
generally or otherwise and the President should Act in accordance with the
advice tendered after such re-consideration.
Article 257A was omitted.
It has been provided that an Emergency can be proclaimed only on the basic of
written advice tendered to the President by the cabinet.
Right the property has been taken out from the list of Fundamental Rights and
has been declared a legal right.
The Constitution (Forty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1980
The purpose of the Amendment was to continue reservation of seats for Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies for
another 10 years, i.e., upto 1990. the same concession is extended to the
Anglo-Indians who may have representation by nomination in these chambers.
The Constitution (Forty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1982
The Forty-sixth Amendment enables the State Governments to plug loopholes and
realise sales-tax dues on the one hand and on the other aims at bringing about
some uniformity in tax rates in case of certain items.
The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984
This Amendment adds 14 State Acts dealing with land to the IX Schedule.
The Constitution (Forty-eight Amendment) Act, 1984
The purpose of the Amendment was to extend President’s rule in Punjab for two
years. Under Article 356(5) President’s rule can last in a State for a maximum
period of one year. But the conditions in Punjab did not permit holding of fresh
elections and accordingly, extension of President’s rule became imperative.
The Constitution (Forty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1984
the purpose of this Amendment is to take out the Tribal areas of Tripura from
Schedule V and put them in Schedule VI.
The Constitution (Fiftieth Amendment) Act, 1984
This Amendment substitutes an expounded Article 33 for the old Article by the
new Article 33, Parliament is authorised to curtail the fundamental rights of
the members of the armed forces, forces charged with the maintenance of public
order, intelligence organisations or telecommunication systems set up for any
force or intelligence bureau, with a view to ensure the proper discharge of
duties by and maintenance of discipline among those persons in the interest of
The Constitution (Fifty-first Amendment) Act, 1984
the Amendment effectuates some changes in Articles 330 and 332 with a view to
provide for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for Scheduled tribes in
Meghalaya, Aruncahal Pradesh and Mizoram, as well as in the Legislative
Assemblies of Nagaland and Meghalaya.
The Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985
The amendment is designed to prevent the scourge of defection of members of
Parliament and State legislatures from one political party to another.
The Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986
The amendment Act elevated the Union Territory of Mizoram to the status of a
The Constitution (Fifty-fourth Amendment) Act,1986
The Salaries of the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts have been
enhanced by the 54th Amendment Act, 1986. accordingly, a Judge of the Supreme
Court gets a salary of Rs. 9,000 per mensem and the salary of the Chief Justice
is Rs. 10,000 per mensem. A Judge of the High Court gets a salary of Rs. 8,000
per mensem and the salary of the Chief Justice of the High Courts is Rs. 9,000
The Constitution (Fifty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1986
The Union Territory of Arunchal Pradesh was elevated to the status of a State by
the 55th Amendment Act.
The Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987
Constitution (56the Amendment) Act, 1987 inserting Article 394A, to make the
Hindi text of the Constitution authoritative.
The Constitution (Fifty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1987
The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987 with the Goa, Daman and Diu
Reorganisation Act, 1987 lifts Goa from the status of Union Territory to that of
the 25th State of the Union of India.
The Constitution (Fifty-eight Amendment) Act, 1987
The Amendment Act provides the reservation of seats for tribals in the
Legislative Assemblies of Arunchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
The Constitution (Fifty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1988
The Act empowered the Government to impose emergency in Punjab on the grounds
that india’s integrity was threatened by internal disturbances.
The Constitution (Sixtieth Amendment) Act, 1988
The Amendment Act authoriese State Governments to increase the ceiling on
professional tax from Rs. 250 to Rs. 2,500 per person per annum.
The Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988
The 61st Amendment reduces the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok
Sabha and Assembly election.
The Constitution (Sixty-second Amendment) Act, 1990
The 62nd Amendment Act extends by 10 years the reservation of seats for the
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies as
well as nomination representatives of the Anglo-Indian community.
The Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1990
The Amendment Act repealed the 59th Constitution amendment which empowered the
Government to impose emergency in Punjab.
The Constitution (Sixty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1990
The Amendments Act seeks to extend President’s rule in Punjab for further six
The Constitution (Sixty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1990
Article 338 of the Constitution has been amended for the Constitution of a
National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes consisting of a
chairperson, vice-chairperson and five other members who shall be appointed by
the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
The Constitution (Sixty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1990
The Act protects fifty-five State Acts relating to land reforms and ceiling on
agricultural land holdings, enacted by States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Union Territory of Pondicherry, from
challenge in courts, by including them in the Ninth Schedule to the
The Constitution (sixty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1991
The Amendment Act seeks to extend President’s rule in Punjab for further six
months i.e., upto may 10,1991.
The Constitution (Sixty-eight Amendment) Act, 1991
The Amendment Act seeks to extend President’s Rule in Punjab for further six
months after May 1991.
The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991
The Amendment Act seeks grant of Statehood to Delhi as ‘National Capital
Territory of Delhi’. It also provides a 70 member assembly and a 7 member
Council Ministers for Delhi.