Origin : The United Nations Organisation is an association of states which have pledged themselves to maintain international peace and security and cooperate in solving international political, economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems towards achieving this end.
The United Nations officially came into existence on Oct. 24,1945, with the
deposit of the requisite number of ratifications of the Charter, the
constituting instrument of the UN with the US Department of State. United
Nations Day is celebrated on 24 Oct. each year. The headquarters of the UNO is
in New York.
Objects : To maintain international peace and security.
● To develop friendly relations among
nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and
self-determination of peoples.
To cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these.
Flag : White UN Emblem (two bent olive branches open at the top and in between
them in world map) on a light blue background.
Official Languages : Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The United Nations has six principal organs according to the Charter
which are indicated as below–
The General Assembly
It consists of all 192 member nations and functions as the main deliberative
body. It meets once a
year on the third Tuesday of the month of September and session lasts for two
weeks. It has the under mentioned aspects :
(i) At each session the Assembly elects a new President, 21 Vice-Presidents and
Chairmen of the six main committees. For proper geographical representation, the Presidency of the
Assembly rotates every year among the five geographical groups–Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe,
Latin America and Caribbean, and Western Europe and other stares. Special session can be called by
the Secretary General at the request of the Security Council by the majority of
members or of by one member of majority of the members approve of the same.
(ii) Decisions on the important questions are taken by the two-third majority.
The issues are of the nature of peace and security, new membership and budget.
(iii) Decisions on other issues are taken by a simple majority.
(iv) The work of the meeting is divided into six main committees as given below–
Disarmament and International Security Committee
Economic and Financial committee
Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee
Special Political and Decolonisation Committee
Administrative and Budgetary Committee
(v) In all the committees, each member state is represented.
(vi) There is a general committee which is responsible for the proceedings of
the General Assembly and also its committees as well as Credential Committee.
(vii) The General Committee is made of 28 members, the President and 21
Vice-Presidents of the
General Assembly and Chairmen of six main committees.
(viii) The Credential Committee is composed of nine members appointed by the
General Assembly on the proposal of the President of each session.
(ix) The General. Assembly has two standing Committees as mentioned below–
An Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions
A Committee on Contributions
(x) The General Assembly may establish subsidiary and ad-hoc bodies in order to
deal with specific matters. These include the following subject-issues–
Committee on Peace Keeping Operations
Human Rights Committee
Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space
Conciliation Commission on Palestine
Conference on disarmament
International Law Commission
Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
Special committee on the Implementation of Declaration of the Granting of
Colonial Countries and Peoples.
Commission on International Trade and Law
(xi) The General Assembly has the right to decide any issue connected with the
(xii) Excepting those disputes which are on the agenda of the Security Council,
the General Assembly has the power to make recommendations over all other
(xiii) Recommendations of the General Assembly have no compulsion power on the
but the same has the weightage of world opinion.
(xiv) The General Assembly receives reports from the other organs, admits new
activities of development, sets policies and determines programmers for the
Secretariat, appoints the
Secretary General who submits annual reports on the work of the Assembly and
approves the UN Budget.
(xiii) Under the resolution 'Uniting for Peace' adopted by the General Assembly
in Nov. 1950 the same is empowered to take action in the following cases–
In case of threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression the
steps in if the Security Council fails to exercise its primary responsibility
for international peace and security because of lack of unanimity amongst its
In such a case, General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately and make
recommendation for collective measures by the members.
Even the option for use of armed forces for restoration of peace and security
can be approved by the General Assembly to meet the challenges of crisis.
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