Origin : The United Nations Organisation is an association of states which have pledged themselves to maintain international peace and security and cooperate in solving international political, economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems towards achieving this end.

The United Nations officially came into existence on Oct. 24,1945, with the deposit of the requisite number of ratifications of the Charter, the constituting instrument of the UN with the US Department of State. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 Oct. each year. The headquarters of the UNO is in New York.

Objects : To maintain international peace and security.
● To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.
● To cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
● To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these.
common ends.

Flag : White UN Emblem (two bent olive branches open at the top and in between them in world map) on a light blue background.

Official Languages : Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

The United Nations has six principal organs according to the Charter
which are indicated as below–

The General Assembly
It consists of all 192 member nations and functions as the main deliberative body. It meets once a
year on the third Tuesday of the month of September and session lasts for two weeks. It has the under mentioned aspects :

(i) At each session the Assembly elects a new President, 21 Vice-Presidents and Chairmen of the six main committees. For proper geographical representation, the Presidency of the Assembly rotates every year among the five geographical groups–Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Caribbean, and Western Europe and other stares. Special session can be called by the Secretary General at the request of the Security Council by the majority of members or of by one member of majority of the members approve of the same.

(ii) Decisions on the important questions are taken by the two-third majority. The issues are of the nature of peace and security, new membership and budget.

(iii) Decisions on other issues are taken by a simple majority.

(iv) The work of the meeting is divided into six main committees as given below–
● Disarmament and International Security Committee
● Economic and Financial committee
● Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee
● Special Political and Decolonisation Committee
● Administrative and Budgetary Committee
● Legal Committee

(v) In all the committees, each member state is represented.

(vi) There is a general committee which is responsible for the proceedings of the General Assembly and also its committees as well as Credential Committee.

(vii) The General Committee is made of 28 members, the President and 21 Vice-Presidents of the
General Assembly and Chairmen of six main committees.

(viii) The Credential Committee is composed of nine members appointed by the General Assembly on the proposal of the President of each session.

(ix) The General. Assembly has two standing Committees as mentioned below–
● An Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions
● A Committee on Contributions

(x) The General Assembly may establish subsidiary and ad-hoc bodies in order to deal with specific matters. These include the following subject-issues–
● Committee on Peace Keeping Operations
● Human Rights Committee
● Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space
● Conciliation Commission on Palestine
● Conference on disarmament
● International Law Commission
● Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
● Special committee on the Implementation of Declaration of the Granting of Independence of
● Colonial Countries and Peoples.
● Commission on International Trade and Law

(xi) The General Assembly has the right to decide any issue connected with the Charter .

(xii) Excepting those disputes which are on the agenda of the Security Council, the General Assembly has the power to make recommendations over all other issues.

(xiii) Recommendations of the General Assembly have no compulsion power on the member state, but the same has the weightage of world opinion.

(xiv) The General Assembly receives reports from the other organs, admits new members, directs activities of development, sets policies and determines programmers for the Secretariat, appoints the Secretary General who submits annual reports on the work of the Assembly and approves the UN Budget.

(xiii) Under the resolution 'Uniting for Peace' adopted by the General Assembly in Nov. 1950 the same is empowered to take action in the following cases–
● In case of threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression the General Assembly steps in if the Security Council fails to exercise its primary responsibility for international peace and security because of lack of unanimity amongst its permanent members.
● In such a case, General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately and make recommendation for collective measures by the members.
● Even the option for use of armed forces for restoration of peace and security can be approved by the General Assembly to meet the challenges of crisis.