The election of the president of India is a complex exercise and is done by an Electoral College as per the provision laid down in the Constitution.

How the President is elected
The President of India is elected by the members of an Electoral College consisting of–

  • Elected members of both houses of Parliament (MP)

  • Elected members of Legislative Assemblies of States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry) (MLA)

Nominated members of either house of Parliament of State Assemblies are not eligible to be included in the Electoral College.

Total electors
The total members in the Electoral College in 2012 are 4,896. The break-up is as follows–

Rajya Sabha

 

233

Lok Sabha

 

543

State Assemblies

 

4,120

Total

 

4,896

The constitution stipulates uniformity, as far as practicable, in the scale of representation of the different states. For securing such uniformity among States as well as parity between the States as a whole and the Union, a formula is given for determination of the value of vote which each elected MP or MLA is entitled to cast.

Formula
Value of votes
Each MLA’s vote is calculated on the basis :

State population
.---------------------------------   =  Value of one MLA’s vote
1,000x No. of State MLAs

Illustration
Total population of Andhra (1971 census) ………..….43,502,708
Total no. of elective seats in the Assembly …………..294

 

43,502,708

 

Value of each MLAs vote =

-----------------

= 147.97 or 148

 

1,000 x 294

 

Total value of votes for Andhra …….............................148 x 294 = 43,512

Population figures of the 1971 census are used to calculate the votes of the states.

State-wise value of votes

Andhra Pradesh

43,512

 

Jharkhand

14,256

 

Punjab

13,572

Arunachal Pradesh

480

 

Karnataka

29, 344

 

Rajasthan

25,800

Assam

14,616

 

Kerala

21, 280

 

Sikkim

224

Bihar

42,039

 

Madhya Pradesh

30,130

 

Tamil Nadu

41,184

Chhattisgarh

11,610

 

Maharashtra

50,400

 

Tripura

1,560

Goa

800

 

Manipur

1,080

 

Uttar Pradesh

83,824

Gujarat

26,754

 

Meghalaya

1,020

 

Uttarakhand

4,480

Haryana

10,080

 

Mizoram

320

 

West Bengal

44,394

Himachal Pradesh

3, 468

 

Nagaland

540

 

Delhi National Capital Territory

4,060

Jammu and Kashmir

6,254

 

Odisha

21,903

 

Puducherry

480

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

5,49,474

Each MP,s vote is calculated on the basis :
Total vote value of all MLAs
------------------------------------  =  Value of one MP’s vote
Total members of Parliament
(Rajya Sabha + Lok Sabha)

 

5,49,474

 

Value of each MPs vote =

--------------

= 708.09 or 708

 

233 + 543

 

The election is held under a system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Conducted by a secret ballot

Total value of votes :

MPs (776x708)

 

5,49,408

MLAs (Total of all States)

 

5,49,474

Total

 

10,98,882