The election of the president of India is a complex exercise and is done by an Electoral College as per the provision laid down in the Constitution.

How the President is elected
The President of India is elected by the members of an Electoral College consisting of–

• Elected members of both houses of Parliament (MP)

• Elected members of Legislative Assemblies of States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry) (MLA)

Nominated members of either house of Parliament of State Assemblies are not eligible to be included in the Electoral College.

Total electors
The total members in the Electoral College in 2012 are 4,896. The break-up is as follows–

 Rajya Sabha 233 Lok Sabha 543 State Assemblies 4,120 Total 4,896

The constitution stipulates uniformity, as far as practicable, in the scale of representation of the different states. For securing such uniformity among States as well as parity between the States as a whole and the Union, a formula is given for determination of the value of vote which each elected MP or MLA is entitled to cast.

Formula
Each MLA’s vote is calculated on the basis :

State population
.---------------------------------   =  Value of one MLA’s vote
1,000x No. of State MLAs

Illustration
Total population of Andhra (1971 census) ………..….43,502,708
Total no. of elective seats in the Assembly …………..294

 43,502,708 Value of each MLAs vote = ----------------- = 147.97 or 148 1,000 x 294

Total value of votes for Andhra …….............................148 x 294 = 43,512

Population figures of the 1971 census are used to calculate the votes of the states.

 Andhra Pradesh 43,512 Jharkhand 14,256 Punjab 13,572 Arunachal Pradesh 480 Karnataka 29, 344 Rajasthan 25,800 Assam 14,616 Kerala 21, 280 Sikkim 224 Bihar 42,039 Madhya Pradesh 30,130 Tamil Nadu 41,184 Chhattisgarh 11,610 Maharashtra 50,400 Tripura 1,560 Goa 800 Manipur 1,080 Uttar Pradesh 83,824 Gujarat 26,754 Meghalaya 1,020 Uttarakhand 4,480 Haryana 10,080 Mizoram 320 West Bengal 44,394 Himachal Pradesh 3, 468 Nagaland 540 Delhi National Capital Territory 4,060 Jammu and Kashmir 6,254 Odisha 21,903 Puducherry 480 Total 5,49,474

Each MP,s vote is calculated on the basis :
Total vote value of all MLAs
------------------------------------  =  Value of one MP’s vote
Total members of Parliament
(Rajya Sabha + Lok Sabha)

 5,49,474 Value of each MPs vote = -------------- = 708.09 or 708 233 + 543

The election is held under a system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Conducted by a secret ballot